The Achaeological Survey of India in its
current form was established in 1861. Its
revival began during the viceroyalty (1899-1905)
of Lord Nathaniel Curzon (1859-1925) who, recognizing
the lack of coordination, proposed the revival of the post
of the Director General. Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) was
appointed to head the department in 1902, a post that he held for 26 years.

Stein joined the Survey in January 1904, becoming Inspector General of Education and Archaeological Surveyor in Baluchistan and in the territory of the Northwest Frontier Province reorganized by Curzon.

Between 1910 and 1917, he was Superintendent of Archaeology in the Nortwest Frontier Province and Honorary Curator of the Peshawar Museum.

After his official retirement in 1917, he obtained extension of service on “special duty” to work on books and his findings from the third expedition until 1928, when he finally retired from service in India.

The results of his work on Indian archaeology can be found in the official publications of the Survey.